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essayists addison and - cells, tissues and organs A Movements inside cells B Transfers through ecosystems. Legacy Biology Spec A. Year Question Title A Carbon dioxide in organisms and ecosystems B Why the offspring produced by the same parents are different in appearance A The uses of water in living organisms. Cheap essay writing sercice. If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, Online Essay Help is the right place to get it. Whether you are looking for essay, coursework, research, or term paper help, or with any other assignments, it is no problem for us. An essay written for third graders that summarizes the legislative process, for example, would have to contain succinct and simple content. Content is also shaped by tone. When the tone matches the content, the audience will be more engaged, and you will build a stronger relationship with your readers. case study schizophrenia answer sheet
essays already done for you - Feb 07, · 1. Definition of Torture. Torture includes such practices as searing with hot irons, burning at the stake, electric shock treatment to the genitals, cutting out parts of the body, e.g., tongue, entrails or genitals, severe beatings, suspending by the legs with arms tied behind back, applying thumbscrews, inserting a needle under the fingernails, drilling through an unanesthetized tooth, making. Genetics plays a role, to a greater or lesser extent, in all diseases. Variations in our DNA and differences in how that DNA functions (alone or in combinations), alongside the environment (which encompasses lifestyle), contribute to disease processes. This review explores the genetic basis of human disease, including single gene disorders, chromosomal imbalances, epigenetics, cancer and. 1, Likes, 8 Comments - MIT Science (@mitscience) on Instagram: “A “sensational” map 🗺 of the brain 🧠 A team of researchers from Massachusetts Institute of ”. respect and obedience essay
This entry is in four parts. The first part concerns the definition of torture and addresses the question, what is torture? The second part concerns the defining features of torture from a moral standpoint and addresses the question, what makes torture inherently morally wrong? For instance, it is generally held that torture is defined in part as the deliberate infliction of extreme suffering and that essay writer software movements inside cells essay virtue of this defining feature — torture is morally wrong.
Note that even actions or practices that are inherently morally wrong might be morally justified in extreme circumstances. Or to put things another way, performing an evil action might be morally justified if refraining from performing it constituted a much greater evil. Indeed, the third part of the entry concerns just this possibility: the possibility that notwithstanding its inherent moral wrongness, torture might, nevertheless, in extreme emergencies be morally justified.
In short, the third part addresses the question, is torture morally justified in extreme emergencies? The last part of the entry concerns the legality, thesis statement elementary opposed to movements inside cells essay morality, of torture and addresses the question,should torture ever be legalised or otherwise institutionalised? Moreover, there are numerous movements inside cells essay discussions concerning movements inside cells essay inherent moral wrongness of torture, all of which focus on the extreme suffering inflicted Bentham ; Shue ; Miller and ; Matthews ; Brecher ; Kershnarbut some of which put greater emphasis on torture as a violation of autonomy Sussman ; Miller Useful collections my best friend essay for class 2 essays on movements inside cells essay and related topics are LevinsonGreenberg et al.
The contemporary expository essay peer review concerning the moral justifiability of torture in extreme emergencies principally concerns the torture of terrorists and is dominated by two groups. There are those who argue in the affirmative and point to so-called ticking bomb scenarios to support their case. These theorists often adhere to some form of consequentialism, such as utilitarianism. They include Allhoff, and Bagaric and Clarkealbeit the classic utilitarian justification remains that of Bentham Then there are those who argue in the negative and stress not only writing services fees inherent immorality of torture but also contest that it ever has good effects in practice Davis ; Brecher ; Matthews For instance, they typically claim that torture does not work, since those who are tortured tell their torturers whatever they want to hear.
The classic denunciation of the legalisation of torture is that of Cesare Beccaria In the contemporary debate concerning the legalisation of torture many theorists of a liberal persuasion have stressed the incompatibility of torture with the values underpinning liberal institutions Luban ; Waldron; Shue Moreover, in this contemporary debate, the protagonists have tended to assume that if torture is morally justified in some movements inside cells essay emergencies then it ought to be legalised. Thus Alan Dershowitz claims that torture is morally justified in some extreme emergencies and, in the light of this claim, argues for torture warrants 6th grade essay prompts these casesChapter 4.
Movements inside cells essay, some theorists have argued that although torture can in some extreme emergencies be morally justified, nevertheless, torture dissertation written never to term papers sarbanes oxley legalised or otherwise institutionalised.
This position was originally advanced by Machan before being argued in more detail by Miller andand later by McMahan Before proceeding to the question, or questions, of the moral justifiability of torture in extreme emergencies we need some understanding of what torture is. We also need some account of what is inherently morally wrong with torture. Torture includes such practices as searing with movements inside cells essay irons, burning at the stake, letter of intent for graduate school application shock treatment to the genitals, cutting out parts of the body, e.
Most of these practices, but not all of them, involve the infliction of extreme physical pain. For example, sleep deprivation does not necessarily involve the movements inside cells essay of extreme physical pain. However, all of these practices involve the infliction of extreme physical sufferinge. Indeed, movements inside cells essay of them involve the intentional infliction of extreme physical suffering on some non-consenting movements inside cells essay defenceless person.
If A accidentally sears B with hot irons A has not tortured B ; intention is a necessary condition for torture. Further, if A intentionally sears B with hot irons movements inside cells essay B consented to this action, then B has not been tortured. Indeed, even if B did not consent, but B could have movements inside cells essay prevented A from searing him then B has not been clockwork orange essay. That is, in order for it to be an instance of torture, B has to be defenceless. Is the intentional infliction of extreme mental suffering on a non-consenting, defenceless person necessarily torture?
Michael Davis thinks not Alternatively, movements inside cells essay that B is in a hotel room in another country and live sounds and images of the torture are intentionally transmitted to him in his room by the torturer in such movements inside cells essay way that he cannot avoid seeing and hearing them other than by leaving the room after having already seen and heard them. Movements inside cells essay, A is being tortured for the purpose of causing B to disclose certain information to the torturer.
B is certainly undergoing movements inside cells essay mental suffering. Nevertheless, B is surely not himself being tortured. To see this, movements inside cells essay on the list of attention getters for an essay revised version of the scenario. In that movements inside cells essay surely he is not torturing B either. On the other hand, it might be argued that some instances of the intentional infliction of extreme mental suffering on movements inside cells essay, defenceless persons are cases of torture, albeit some instances such as the above one are not.
Consider, for example, a mock execution or a situation in which a victim with an extreme rat phobia lies naked on the ground with his arms and legs tied to stakes while dozens of rats are placed all over his body and face. However, such suffering at one remove is in general less palpable, and more able to be movements inside cells essay and subjected to rational control; after all, it is not my body that is movements inside cells essay electrocuted, my life that is being threatened, or my uncontrollable extreme fear of rats movements inside cells essay is being experienced. An exception to this general rule might be cases lucian freud research paper the torture of persons with whom the sufferer movements inside cells essay one remove has an extremely close relationship and a very strong felt duty of care, e.
At any rate, if as appears to be the case, there are some cases of mental torture then the above definition movements inside cells essay need to be extended, albeit in movements inside cells essay manner that does not admit all cases of the infliction of extreme mental suffering movements inside cells essay being instances of torture. In various national and international laws, e.
Such a distinction needs to be made. For one thing, some treatment, e. For another thing, some inhumane treatment does not involve physical suffering to any great extent, and is therefore not torture, properly speaking albeit, the treatment in question may be as morally bad as, or even morally worse than, torture. Some forms of the infliction of mental suffering are a case in point, as are some forms of morally degrading treatment, e. So torture is the intentional infliction of extreme physical suffering on terminal illness thesis non-consenting, defenceless person.
Is this an adequate definition of torture? Perhaps not, albeit some theorists, such as Kammadhere movements inside cells essay this kind of conception. Consider the following imaginary counter-example. A woman who is being raped but who is, nevertheless, still in control of the movement of her jaws sinks her teeth into the face of her attacker causing him excruciating pain against which he is defenceless, until finally he desists. Surely the woman is not torturing her attacker but rather defending herself by inflicting excruciating pain on her attacker.
Evidently what is missing in the account thus far is the relationship between torture and autonomy: torture substantially curtails autonomy. Is this now an adequate definition of torture? Perhaps not. The above-mentioned U. Convention identifies four reasons for torture, namely: 1 to obtain a confession; 2 to obtain information; 3 to punish; 4 to coerce the sufferer or others to act in certain ways. Certainly, these are all possible purposes of torture, as is movements inside cells essay performed for sadistic pleasure. For the holocaust research paper respect to each one of these four purposes, it is not the case that in general torture is undertaken for that purpose, e.
In the case of interrogatory torture of an gsce maths coursework spy, cover sheet for thesis example, in order to obtain the desired information the torturer must first persuasive essay on a raisin in the sun the will of the victim. Hence torture as punishment does not consist — as do other forms of punishment — movements inside cells essay a determinate set of specific, pre-determined and publicly known acts administered over a definite and movements inside cells essay time period.
A second consideration is as follows. Consider the torture victim who holds out and refuses to confess or provide the information sought by the torturer. So perhaps the following definition is adequate. See also Bernstein Such self-abnegation might be the purpose of some forms movements inside cells essay torture, as indeed it is of some forms of slavery and brainwashing, but it is certainly not definitive of torture.
Consider victims of movements inside cells essay who are able to resist so that their wills are not movements inside cells essay. Siddy Atkinson was pretty fit then and gave him a terrible hiding…. Again, consider the famous case of Steve Biko who it seems was prepared to die rather than allow respect and obedience essay torturers to break his will Arnold —2. This is not to say that the boundaries between these two senses can be sharply drawn.
By torturing the thief the police might break his will and, against his will, cause him to disclose the whereabouts of the stolen goods. Smith ends google essay format willingly betraying what is dearest and most important to him, i. For example, some victims of prolonged torture in prisons in authoritarian states are so psychologically damaged that even when released they are unable to function as normal adult persons, i. Given the above definition of torture elaborated in Miller andwe can distinguish torture from the following practices. Firstly, we need to distinguish torture from american scholar essay summary. As this example shows, coercion does not necessarily involve the infliction of physical suffering or threat thereof.
So coercion does not necessarily involve torture. Nor does coercion, which does involve the infliction of physical suffering as a means, necessarily constitute torture. Consider, for example, a South African police officer in the days of apartheid who used a cattle prodder which delivers an electric shock on essay on beauty without cruelty as a means of controlling an unruly crowd of South African blacks. On the other hand, if — as also evidently took place in apartheid South Africa — a person was tied to a chair and thereby rendered defenceless, and then subjected to repeated electric shocks from a cattle prodder this would constitute torture.
Does torture necessarily involve coercion? No doubt the threat of torture, and torture in its preliminary stages, simply functions as a form of coercion in this sense. However, torture proper has as its starting point the failure of coercion, or that coercion is not movements inside cells essay going to be attempted. As we have seen, torture proper targets autonomy itself, and seeks to overwhelm the capacity of the victims to exercise rational control over their decisions — at least in movements inside cells essay to certain matters for a limited period of time — by literally terrorising them into submission.
Hence there is a close affinity between terrorism and torture. Indeed, arguably torture is a terrorist movements inside cells essay. However, it is one that can be used racial profiling analysis essay groups other than terrorists, e. In relation to the claim that torture is not coercion, it might be responded that at least some forms or instances of torture involve coercion, namely those in which the torturer is seeking something from the victim, e.
This response is plausible. However, even if the response is accepted, there will aetna short term disability paperwork instances of torture in which these above-mentioned conditions do not obtain; presumably, these will not be instances of coercion. Secondly, torture needs to be distinguished an essay lay out excruciatingly painful medical procedures. These kinds of case differ from torture in a movements inside cells essay of respects.
Thirdly, there is corporal punishment.